Apologia Pro Vita Sua (A Defence of One's Own Life), John Henry Newman's defense of his religious beliefs, was published in 1864 in response to Charles Kingsley of the Church of England after Newman quit his position as the Anglican vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford. From 1833 to 1841 there was friction in the Church of England which culminated in Newman's 1845 resignation as an Anglican vicar and his conversion to Roman Catholicism. Newman's essay responded to attacks from Charles Kingsley of the broad church party, who criticised Newman's conversion by casting aspersions on his truthfulness and honor. Apologia became a best seller, and remains in print today. The character Aunt Lydia in Margaret Atwood’s 2019 novel The Testaments refers to the Apologia Pro Vita Sua.